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7th Ministerial Conference:
East West Window:
TALLINN REPORT: Part III - Vision
Basic values and overall goals
Spatial development policies must integrate a broad spectrum of sectoral and cross-sectoral policies. Four basic values, all aiming at the improvement of the quality of life, constitute the “heart” of the vision: Development, Environmental sustainability, Freedom and Solidarity.
The notion of development goes beyond economic prosperity or growth. Development includes social, cultural and other aspects. But economic prosperity is a pre-condition for many other elements of quality of life, and therefore plays a predominant role.
Development shall enhance diversity. Diversity reflects the respect for individual human beings, for nature, regions and cultural heritage. As individual - and regional - preferences are different, they must have the chance to develop different life styles, cultures and even economic activities. There is no high quality of life without diversity. Uniform solutions are to be avoided. The principle of diversity promotes regional and local identity, and it strengthens the flexibility of society as of nature.
Diversity is correlated with the principle of integration: no region should develop as a “closed shop” - not only for reasons of economic efficiency but also to maintain a mutual enrichment among regions and nations.
Development: Desirable spatial structures and processes must:
Development must follow a way which does not deprive future generations of their chances. Resources must not be fully consumed by one or a few generations, nor must they be spoilt to become unusable. Nature and environment are to be kept so that future generations also have a chance to use and enjoy them under healthy conditions. Sustainability in this sense has not been achieved anywhere. But policy shall make it possible to come ever closer to this objective. Sustainability also has a social and economic dimension: Development shall be promoted in such a way so as to maintain social and regional coherence. This will be discussed under the value of solidarity and balance.
Environmental sustainability: Desirable spatial structures and processes must:
- create favourable conditions for the efficient use of the Baltic Sea Region’s resources and potentials (in all fields such as economy, culture, arts, science)
- reduce insecurity for investors and other actors
- facilitate the development of a wide spectrum of activities in multiple forms at all spatial levels
- help regions to develop on the basis of their specific strengths and potentials.
Freedom is the possibility to choose in accordance with individual preference - within the limitations defined by the respect for other people wishing the same. This includes two elements: the availability of such options as are required by people; their accessibility in physical and in economical terms. Such an objective will never be achieved everywhere for everybody. But it defines a direction where policies - including spatial policies - should go for.
There is no freedom without participation. People - or their representatives at the lowest possible level - must have the possibility to participate actively in the preparation of decision on development or environment protection measures.
Subsidiarity is an important tool to allow participation. It also helps to improve the quality of decisions which shall be taken at the lowest possible level. This is in contrast to undifferentiated centralisation where decisions are taken far from those being affected by them, and undifferentiated decentralisation where decisions are taken without considering effects on the wider territory. In spatial terms, this means: what can be decided at the community level, needs no delegation to the municipal level; what can be decided at the municipal level, shall not be decided at the regional one; and what can be decided regionally, must not be decided at the national level.
Freedom: Desirable spatial structures and processes must:
- shape an energy efficient settlement structure
- avoid the defeat in land use competition of activities important for maintaining sustainability
- promote the use of environment friendly transport modes
- protect valuable environmental and nature potentials. promote biological diversity.
Solidarity is the characteristic of a caring society, sharing benefits from development. More powerful people or regions (in economic, intellectual or political terms) must allow the weaker ones to have their fair share in development progress.
Solidarity: Desirable spatial structures and processes must:
- create conditions for the efficient supply of services and employment opportunities in all regions
- ensure an adequate physical accessibility of these
- facilitate a planning process with a high degree of local/ regional participation
- promote participation of people and businesses in the planning process.
Conflicts between different demands are unavoidable. Spatial policies must seek compromises between competing or even conflicting demands. Such compromises must be based on the principle of a fair balance, where the spatial effect of no single demand can automatically overrule others.
Linked to the principle of solidarity is that of self-reliance: before higher level spatial units get involved, lower level representatives are called to mobilise their own resources and capabilities.
A key word for spatial policies is spatial balance:
- enable compromises between conflicting land use demands to respect economic, social and environmental needs
- reduce interregional discrepancies in living standards (promote spatial coherence)
- establish a co-ordination system to balance local/regional with supra-regional demands
- promote a development which is based on regional specific strengths and characteristics.
Decentralisation relates to many of the values discussed before. It is essential for the mobilisation of local potentials; it is a precondition for freedom and participation within a system of subsidiarity; it is required to achieve sustainability as well as a balance between economic development and protection of the environment.
Decentralisation is particularly linked to the urban network. Regions shall dispose of urban centres with sufficiently developed functions to support economic development and to provide economic viability for services and infrastructure supply.
But this means at the same time concentration. Strengthening of regional urban centres shall be concentrated at selected cities, depending on the specific context of each country/region (e.g. population density, economic structure, distances and infrastructure network). A concentration is also necessary with respect to major (international) urban centres to make them internationally competitive.
So the principle is: concentrate as far as necessary, decentralise as far as possible. This rule needs specific forms of translation.
The balance between (economic) development and environment respectively between conflicting land use demands are closely interconnected. While in the long run both goals will meet, there is a conflict between short-term economic progress and (long-term) environmental sustainability. The principle of decentralised concentration as opposed to scattered development contributes to reduce this conflict.
Urban land use shall be limited to well-defined urban areas expanding along established corridors. Touristic development shall give room for the protection of valuable areas. Industrial development shall be concentrated at main international and regional centres to mobilise development forces and to keep other areas less disturbed; protection of valuable natural areas shall be concentrated at selected (and interlinked) areas to achieve a maximum of benefits. High-ranking infrastructure alignments need to concentrate at a few corridors to achieve economic viability and to minimise detrimental effects on the environment.
When differentiating land use, no single type of land use can be given a-priori preference - may it be industrial, urban, agricultural or nature. The proper balance between different land uses can only be established according to local and regional circumstances. Therefore, it is important to establish rules and regulations which make sure that weaker types of land use (and particularly those relevant for environmental sustainability) are sufficiently taken into consideration. Conflicts can not be avoided, but compromises can be sought which minimise negative effects.
- decentralisation and concentration
- economic development and environment (sustainability)
- conflicting land use demands
» THE PEARLS
The urban network shall, in accordance with the values
In such a network:
- promote spatial cohesion (reduce spatial discrepancies in living standards)
- provide conditions for the efficient use of development potentials
- be environment friendly
- facilitate recycling.
Examples for inter-city co-operation are: the Helsinki - Tampere corridor (Finland); Helsinki - Tallinn; the Öresund region (Copenhagen - Malmö); Trekantsbyen (Fredericia, Kolding, Vejle) in Denmark; Kymirivervalley (Kotka/Hamina - Kouvola/Kuusankoski) in Finland; Valmiera - Cesis in Latvia, Gdansk - Gdynia - Sopot in Poland; Lithuanian Vilnius - Kaunas; Fyrstad (Uddevalla, Vänersborg, Trolhättan, Lysekil) or Sundsvall- Härnösand- Timra in Sweden; Greifswald - Stralsund in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The vision 2010 consists of 4 goals:
- cities co-operate with each other to use functional complementarities to the mutual benefit (city networks);
- cities compete with each other (at regional, national or international scale, depending on the city’s function) for economic development;
- provide an attractive urban environment;
- national territories are covered by a reasonably dense network of urban centres of different functions.
» THE STRINGS
The mobility network shall be developed so as to support the future urban network. Therefore, development of the mobility and energy infrastructure systems follows the same goals:
- A competitive system of cities gains value by co-operation across the Baltic Sea and with Europe
The urban system comprises a Baltic Ring of European Cities.
These cities play an important role in international co-operation. They shall actively compete with similar urban centres in western Europe and elsewhere.
They shall be places of important international institutions of European significance, major trade fairs, scientific, trade and political congresses, multinational enterprises etc.
European Cities: Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki, St. Petersburg, Riga, Minsk, Warsaw, Berlin, Hamburg
- The system of cities ensures spatial cohesion
This includes a Network of Baltic Cities.
These cities will play an important role in cross-Baltic integration.
Baltic Cities: Arhus, Gothenburg, Malmö-Lund, Norrköping-Lindköping, Umea (linked with Vaasa), Lulea (linked with Oulu), Rostock, Lübeck, Kiel, Szczecin, Gdansk-Gdynia, Kaliningrad, Vilnius (network with Kaunas), Kleipeda, Liepaja, Tallinn, Turku, Oulu (linked with Lulea),Vaasa (linked with Umea).
Institutions of Baltic significance (specialised international institutions like financing institutions, associations - e.g. universities and research institutions dealing with Baltic issues etc.) will be preferably located in these cities (or in the “ring of European cities”). Baltic events will be offered appropriate facilities there (hotels, convention and exhibition centres etc.). Such specialised strengths allow them also to compete at the international level.
Particular emphasis will be given to the development of “Baltic Cities” along the Baltic Sea. These cities benefit from cheap and environment friendly sea transport and act as interlinkages between ports and their hinterland.
National cities with national significance to complement the network of “Baltic Cities”. These national cities are located in the hinterland, and act as important instruments for implementation of national spatial policies. Some “national” cities have also international functions. Depending on their succesful efforts and interest, they have a potential to develop into “Baltic” cities.
National cities: Gomel, Grodner, Brest, Odense, Trekantsbyen, Alborg, Esbjerg, Tartu, Tampere, Kuopio, Bergen, Trondheim, Katowice, Lodz, Krakow, Wroclaw, Poznan, Murmansk, Petrozavodsk
A number of regional cities shall play a key role in the mobilisation of regional development potentials and in promoting spatial economic and social cohesion within the countries. Their good functioning is crucial to the success of spatial policies. Some of these cities, though being of a limited size, have also functions of Baltic importance.
Differences in the urban systems of individual countries require different strategies in the selection and promotion of regional cities.
- Links between urban areas and rural hinterland support regional economic and environmental balance
Improved links between urban centres and rural hinterlands shall permit the interchange of goods and services at low time and transportation cost. This shall enable people to remain living in existing settlements. Urban hinterlands will develop their economic base and promote their role in providing recreation opportunities and bioenergy (where feasible). Particularly in sparsely populated areas, urban services supplies shall be promoted till the lowest functional level.
- Cities offer an attractive urban environment for inhabitants and investment
The green infrastructure of cities will be preserved and restored, where necessary. Urban sprawl be avoided. Green connections between urban areas and open landscapes shall be promoted. Urban spatial development will be linked with public transport systems, the location of new developments shall be concentrated where traffic demand - especially by motor vehicles - will be minimised. Recycling of urban land for development and reuse of existing building plots shall be given preference. Reserve areas for future generations shall be set aside, and waste recycling - including supporting activities in the urban hinterland - be promoted.
The vision 2010 comprises the following elements:
- provide conditions for the efficient use of development potentials
- promote the integration within the BSR and between the BSR and the whole of Europe
- promote the use of environment friendly transport modes and energy supply systems
- improve the accessibility of services and job opportunities
- promote spatial cohesion (reduce spatial discrepancies in living standards).
» THE PATCHES
The following “specific types of areas” will be discussed here: border areas, islands, coastal zones, cultural landscapes and areas of significant natural value. The goal is to integrate these areas into the overall development process in accordance with their specific problems and potentials.
- The BSR mobility network facilitates environment friendly transport
The development of the mobility network shall be linked with the planned urban network to improve the potential for environment friendly transport modes (particularly sea transport and railways).
Railway operation systems and the institutional set-up of the transport sector shall allow a maximum of market orientation to effectively mobilise the potentials of environment friendly transport modes.
Ubiquitous telecommunication systems (not only available at main urban centres) will permit to substitute passenger by information transport.
The use of sea transport shall be supported through the promotion of the ring of “European” and “Baltic cities”.
Public commuter systems shall operate in and around major cities (particularly cities marked as European or Baltic city regions).
Long-distance road transport shall be minimised through improved port, sea transport and railway services.
Combined transport and intermodal co-operation shall be enhanced with a view at promoting sea (and inland waterways) instead of land transport, railways instead of road transport, wherever feasible.
Major road projects shall include city by-passes in order to avoid negative impacts on the urban environment. They will be linked to the inter-modal transport centres referred to in the above section on railways.
Care shall be taken that new major infrastructure projects minimise negative environmental effects and maximise regional dynamisation.
- The mobility network provides conditions for effective integration within the BSR and with the world
Easy border crossing shall be possible with little delay, this being a precondition for any effective investment programmes.
There will be a network of ports along the Baltic coast with frequent shipping services and well-developed multi-modal links to the hinterland, including neighbouring countries. Ferryboat links across the Baltic Sea will be particularly strengthened in the south-eastern part, including the ports of Saßnitz, Rostock, Szczecin/ Swinoujscie, Gdansk/ Gdynia, Kaliningrad, Klaipeda, Riga, Tallinn and St. Petersburg, with a growing number of links across the Baltic Sea towards Nordic countries and Germany. Ferryboat links will be mostly for passengers and road vehicles. New railway ferryboat links, if economically viable, will also link Sweden (Ystad - Kalmar range) to Gdansk and Klaipeda. Existing ferryboat ports will extend their capacities in accordance with growing cross-Baltic traffic volumes.
Universal port functions will concentrate at the ports of Lübeck-Travemünde, Kiel, Copenhagen, Arhus, Esbjerg, Helsingborg, Gothenborg, Oslo, Stockholm, Helsinki, Rostock, Szczecin-Swinoujscie, Gdansk, Kaliningrad, Klaipeda, Riga, Tallinn, and St. Petersburg. These ports will develop into partners among themselves and for existing universal ports such as Hamburg (as the intercontinental main port).
Short-sea conventional shipping services, including feeder transport to North Sea ports, will help to minimise land transport needs. Universal ports will therefore be complemented by a larger number of smaller ports. Coastal shipping will expand its share in total national and international transport.
Competition between ports shall be enhanced, but economically not viable port investments shall be avoided.
Improved railway transportation systems shall provide connections for long distances among “European” and “Baltic cities”. This includes high-speed long-distance passenger trains along selected corridors which interlink with the corresponding network for Western Europe via Berlin and Hamburg. They will also be trunk lines for international cargo trains. Such network with improved travel speed and quality can only be implemented over a long period, and this process will not be completed until 2010.
Main universal and ferryboat ports shall be integrated with the railway network to facilitate rail transport to the hinterlands:
International high-speed railway lines shall be complemented by a system of regional trains where maximum speed is less important than improved reliability and comfort (for countries in Central and Eastern Europe, also speed needs to be heavily improved). Such regional systems will be basically within national networks, but some of them interlink across borders, e.g. Tallinn - St. Petersburg; Kaliningrad - Kaunas - Vilnius - Minsk; Berlin - Szczecin - Gdansk - Kaliningrad - Kaunas - Vilnius - Minsk.
Major missing links shall be eliminated. This refers to high-speed links (see above) for which partially new alignments must be built. A fixed link across the Öresund (motorway and railway) shall be built, the economical and ecological feasibility to establish a fixed link across the Fehmarn Belt shall be finally evaluated. Links between Finland and Russian Karelia/Murmansk shall be established. The lower Elbe river shall be crossed by a new railway bridge.
The long-distance road network shall include, among others, the following alignments:
Via Baltica (Helsinki - Tallinn - Riga - Kaunas - Warsaw - Berlin)
Via Hanseatica (St. Petersburg-Tartu-Riga-Siauliai-Kaliningrad-Gdansk-Szczecin-Lübeck)
TEM (Trans-European Motorway: Oslo - Gothenburg - Karlskrona - Gdansk - Lodz - Katowice)
Szczecin - Wroclaw - Prague
Turku - Helsinki - St. Petersburg - Moscow
Berlin - Warsaw - Minsk - Moscow
Hamburg-Copenhagen-Malmö- (with a fixed link across the Öresund with extensions towards Oslo resp. Stockholm)
Hamburg - Flensburg - Frederikshavn.
Other lines of importance for the BSR will complement these main lines as shown in the map.
Regions not directly served by main transregional infrastructure lines, particularly in eastern Latvia, north-eastern Lithuania, northern Belarus, shall be connected to these long-distance links by regional ones of adequate quality, in order to support regional development.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT PROGRAMMES
The European Union, together with other national and international bodies has established a programme for the development of international trans-port corridors. Main differences shown in this VASAB 2010 report are as follows:
VASAB 2010 considers some further port hinterland corridors to be improved before the year 2010 in order to support sea transport:
- Liepaja - Riga - (Vitebsk - Smolensk - Moscow)
- Ventspils - Riga
- Tallinn - Pskov - (Moscow)
additional coast-parallel corridors are included in VASAB 2010 to promote cross-Baltic (link Baltic and European cities along the sealine):
- additional segment Gdansk - Szczecin (and to Lübeck)
- Tallinn - St. Petersburg
the railway corridor Warsaw - Kaunas - Daugavpils - Pskov - St. Petersburg has no priority in the EU concept until the year 2010. This part of the vision may require more time to be implemented; the same applies for the road corridor, with the segment Kaunas - Pskov.
Some projects are discussed in Poland (improvement of Warta, Odra, Wista waterways, link to the Boug and further on to the Pripyat in Belarus) and in Finland (northwards from Kotka). Major improvement projects will be implemented for the German network, including the Odra-Havel canal. The Polish projects are to be seen in international context (channel Odra - Danube, transit route from Germany to Kaliningrad and Belarus). No decisions have yet been taken, and economic viability has not yet been established.
European and Baltic cities shall be linked among each other by good air links. Remote and sparsely populated regions (e.g. Arctic region) will be linked to main urban centres by a system of regional flight connections. Poland intends to increase the number of international airports (including Gdansk, Szczecin and Suwalki).
The introduction of new cargo “hubs” is one possible way of using former military airports (e.g. Siauliai, Lithuania; Tartu, Estonia; Daugavpils, Latvia). This shall be promoted depending on the result of corresponding feasibility studies.
A functioning system of international and regional communication lines shall support regional development and minimise travel needs. “Information expressways” shall bind the BSR regions together and link them with western Europe and other continents. They will not only serve for business purposes, but also for education, science and research, environmental protection and rationalisation of physical transport. The transeuropean glass-fibre cable system (TEL) shall include all countries of the BSR.
Northern and eastern countries shall be linked to North Sea oil gas sources via new sea port installations (e.g. Lithuanian Butingé and Latvian Liepaja, linked to the Lithuanian refinery Mazeikiai) and/or new gas pipelines (particularly from Norwegian gas fields in the North Sea towards Poland and Finland or possibly British gas via Denmark). Thereby areas presently only supplied from Russian gas sources can diversify their supply.
The Nordic, eastern and western networks will be linked together to form one common energy gid. Transmission lines from Norway towards Hamburg (via North Sea), to Denmark (via Sweden), from eastern Denmark to Germany, from southern Sweden to Mecklenburg, and from Sweden via Aland Islands to Finland and Estonia, as well as the northern connections between Sweden, Finland and Norway shall establish the physical conditions for an extended electricity trade. This will help to take advantage of regional potentials for environment friendly electricity production and of different peak and low demand periods in different countries.
- Energy production relies increasingly on renewable and environment friendly sources of energy
In view of the greenhouse effect efforts shall be made to biologically bind carbon dioxide. An increased production of bioenergy can be pursued on low productivity areas with a high amount of nitrate leakage, located in the proximity of cities. Spatial planning of areas suitable for bioenergy production combined with integrated environmental and rural policies in these areas can make a contribution to local energy systems while at the same time promoting a sustainable energy system. Differences in national energy supply systems, population density and land use require different approaches.
For the location of new power plants, or the extension or rehabilitation of existing ones which may have negative effects on other countries, international concertation shall be sought and Environment Impact Assessment according to the Espoo Convention be prepared.
» THE SYSTEM
The “system” serves to bring about programmes and plans and to promote their implementation. Beyond this purpose, the planning processes must respect the values previously discussed. This is reflected in the following visions.
- Cross-border co-operation contributes significantly to spatial economic and social cohesion
Border areas will be instrumental to the interchange among nations, including trade, labour markets, municipal utility services, transport services, cultural and education co-operation.
There is also intensive cross-border co-operation between islands. Existing co-operations shall be maintained. Potentials for new or more intensive co-operations shall be utilised, with particular emphasis for the border areas shown below.
- Islands function as a touristic core in the BSR
Islands are the geographic centre of the BSR, and they have the tradition of being nodes of transport, trade and communication within the BSR and beyond. Future potentials are their touristic attraction, which in many respects is unique in Europe, and in promoting cross-Baltic cultural and educational co-operation. They already are and shall even intensify their role as spearheads in the search for ways to reconcile environmental protection with local development.
Tourism shall be geared to specific demand groups seeking high-quality, environment-conscious recreation embedded in a rich cultural heritage. Islands shall further develop economic structures which can co-exist and complement touristic activities.
Due to their isolated location, islands offer particular opportunities to promote concepts relying on local initiative such as recycling communities where agriculture and the urban sphere form a symbiotic relationship. Islands are a good case to further develop the principle of subsidiarity.
- The coastal zone is planned with careful balance between development and protection
The HELCOM Recommendation adopted by the Ministers of the Environment of the Baltic Sea States on March 8, 1994, concerning the protection of the coastal strip, is an important step forward. This recommendation states:
- “... Considering that ... coastal areas
- are systems of great biological richness, variety and productivity
- form the habitats of highly specialised and often endangered species of wild fauna and flora as well as large populations of breeding and migratory birds
- are landscapes of great natural beauty
- are highly important for public recreation
- are a natural resource which is becoming more and more scarce ...”
- “... the signing state representatives recommend to their respective governments:
- that the Contracting Parties take all appropriate measures to ensure the protection of the coastal strip
- that a generally protected coastal strip therefore be established outside urban areas and existing settlements, the width of which shall be determined by the nature and landscape values of the coast, extending at least 100 to 300 meters from the mean water line landwards and seawards
- that in this protected coastal strip activities which would permanently change the nature and landscape ... not be allowed except when proved overwhelmingly in the public interest ... intensive forestry and intensive farming including drainage be restricted
- that exceptions can be made from the provisions in the points above by a land use plan approved and sanctioned by an appropriate authority that a zone of at least 3 kilometres landwards from the mean water line be established as a coastal planning zone where major building development and other major permanent changes in nature and landscape be preceded by an appropriate land use plan, including environmental impact assessment, approved at least on the regional level.” (HELCOM Recommendation 15/1 of March 08, 1994).
On the basis of these principles corresponding national/regional planning guidelines shall be worked out. Ministers of Spatial Planning shall seek a common decision on the application of such rules.
Programmes to reduce sea pollution through municipal or industrial waste water shall become effective, including the introduction of municipal waste water treatment plants and the control of industrial effluents. “Hot spots” as identified by HELCOM shall be reduced significantly.
Effective control systems to avoid sea pollution by ships shall be introduced (enforcement of safety regulations, prohibition of spillage etc.).
- A Baltic Network of nature and cultural areas is designated and protected
This includes valuable cultural landscapes, landscapes with a high proportion of valuable forests or wetland biotopes, with the integration of nature protection areas.
More information and harmonisation of concepts across the BSR and beyond is needed. The Nordic Council of Ministers intends to propose unified criteria. On this basis it would be possible to prepare a common BSR designation of valuable cultural landscapes and their respective proposed type of land use.
The aim is to preserve and to improve natural and cultural resources throughout the BSR, to reduce environmental pollution, to secure environmental capacities of European significance and to achieve an environmentally sound use of space. Areas still close to nature shall be linked up to form ecologically effective networks extending up to and into densely populated industrial regions.
In line with these principles, Poland has proposed to extend its project “Green Lungs of Poland” to other countries (Belarus, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine) - thus forming the “Green Lungs of Europe”. The original Polish project covers a region in the north-eastern zone of the country totalling about 15% of national territory. In principle all wetlands should be preserved, especially in those regions were most wetlands have disappeared, some shall be restored, firstly in Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden.
- Spatial planning contributes to harmonisation and spatial cohesion across borders
There shall be institutionalised systems to harmonise national spatial concepts with neighbouring countries. National plans shall pay specific attention to the international perspective in order to achieve harmony with concepts mutually agreed for the wider Baltic Sea Region and for Europe as a whole.
BSR countries shall implement programmes to improve the competitiveness of backward regions (spatial cohesion). Criteria for selection of structural problems, regions will be set up by individual countries. But for the purpose of international support programmes, also some uniform criteria shall be defined, taking into consideration such aspects as: low income levels, structural change problems, labour market situation, low population density in conjunction with a weak settlement structure, problems of accessibility in conjunction with weak transport services, environmental damage coupled with poor quality of life and out-migration trends. Sectoral programmes for selected spatial policy areas shall act in a concerted and consistently focused manner.
- Spatial planning is based on the principles of subsidiarity, participation and transparency
Urban, regional, and national planning decisions shall be taken at the lowest possible level (subsidiarity). This is in accordance with the principles of freedom and democracy. It is also expected to improve the quality of decisions.
Private and public investors shall be able to base their decisions on highly transparent regional and urban development policies. Plans and implementation programmes shall be the result of participative procedures where potentially affected groups, individuals or companies are actively involved in the planning process.
- Spatial planning contributes to the co-ordination of sectoral and regional planning
This shall be based on adequate planning legislation as well as qualification of responsible authorities and their staff.
BSR countries shall dispose of indicative (framework) national spatial concepts which are periodically updated (usually not later than every 10-15 years). These concepts will be the basis for an improved spatial co-ordination of sectoral programmes. Spatial development in the BSR shall be monitored jointly at regular intervals to enable decisions on required new actions.
All countries shall possess a planning legislation which follows similar standards (though these may be adapted to local conditions).
National spatial planning systems shall include three different planning levels: national, regional and local (municipal). The institutional structure depends - among other factors - on the size and population density of the respective country. So additional levels may exist if appropriate.
There shall be systems to evaluate and to control local development plans for their consistency with regional concepts (particularly in the fields of transport and energy infrastructure, nature protection, recreation and tourism). Regional concepts shall be established taking local development ideas into consideration (simultaneous bottom-up-top-down or countercurrent system). A similar system shall exist between national and regional planning.